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There are two main components of blood: cells, or
Composed of three main cell types: erythrocytes, leucocytes & platelets.
- Most numerous cells (5.5x10'^12^'/L).
- No mitochondria
- No nucleus
- Lifespan 120 days
- Contains haemoglobin, with four subunits with a polypeptide globin chain and an iron containing haem group. Adult haemoglobin has two alpha and two beta chains.
- Binds reversibly to four O2 molecules.
Check out the immune pages for more on these... 4-10x10'^9^'/L (20x10'^9^'/L in newborn)
- Agranulocyte, which means that they have clear cytoplasm under a H&E stain.
- Made from lymphoblasts
- Two types: B and T cells.
- Make antibodies (immunoglobulins)
- Allows immunological memory (for vaccines etc)
- Found in blood and bone marrow, are the precursors of macrophages, which are found in connective tissue and ingest foreign bacteria.
- After formation in marrow they circulate for around 72 hours before entering tissues.
- A granulocyte - meaning the cells go grainy under a H&E stain.
- Life span 10 hours
- Phagocytose bacteria
- Secrete cytokines and chemotaxins
- Important in the inflammatory response.
- Made from myeloblasts in bone marrow
- Ingest foreign particles.
- Cover surfaces within the body.
- Involved in allergic responses
- Contain histamine (causes vasodilation, contraction of smooth muscle, mediates inflammation) and heparin (anticoagulant).
- Ingests foreign particles.
- Small, vesicle like structures.
- Formed from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.
- Contain dense granules and receptors from ADP and collagen.
- Lifespan of 4 days.
Plasma, mainly composed of water, blood proteins and inorganic electrolytes
- Determines oncotic pressure (the pressure difference between the blood and the lymph/ tissue fluid).
- Lack of albumin results in oedema, liver disease and nephritic syndrome.
- Also known as antibodies, these are produced by plasma cells, which are differentiated B lymphocytes.
- IgE (GAME)
- Produced in response to non-self antigens.
- Coagulation factors - fibrinogen, prothrombin and plasminogen.
- Carrier proteins and hormones