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This is when an immune response is mounted against self tissues. There are a few common ones:

Rheumatoid arthritis

In this condition The body produces antibodies to synovial membrane. They bind to the joint lining, leading to painful, swollen, chronic inflammation on joints.

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

This is where the body thinks that thyroid cells are foreign, and attacks them.

Grave's disease

This is the opposite, because the antibodies stimulate the effect of TSH, and actually stimulate throxine release.

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

In this, individuals make antibodies to their own red blood cells, leading to anaemia, bilirubin toxicity and other lovely things.